Instructions: Before starting this assignment, please read the following directions carefully.
Read the Orientation statement thoroughly before going to the Assignment Requirement.
Do not simply copy your answers from the readings or any other resource. I am not interested in what someone else had to say about these topics; I am interested in how you synthesize the course content. If you want to cite information, use the Chicago style–with ENDNOTES. But, use direct quotes sparingly–preferably not at all.
Submit your assignment in a Microsoft Word document format (lastname HW1.doc or .docx).
William Hutchinson, writing in Information Warfare and Deception observes that ” In 1991, J. Bowyer Bell and Barton Whaley published Cheating and Deception as an attempt to
theorize about the nature of deception in its broadest sense. They created a classification of deception types. In it, they speculated that there were two basic types of deception:
Level 1: that consisted of hiding the real, and
Level 2: this showed the false.
These fundamental types are further divided into various categories…
Hiding can be broken into:
masking (basically means blending in for example, camouflage),
repackaging (where something is given a new ‘wrapping’), and
dazzling (which consists of confounding the target for example, using codes)
Showing can be broken into: mimicking (this means producing replicas, which have one or more characteristics of reality)
inventing (which involves creating new realities)and
decoying (which involves misdirecting the attacker)”
Joseph W. Caddell’s DECEPTION 101PRIMER ON DECEPTION observed that another ” distinction is made in regard to the degree of “specificity of deception.” In their 1982 work, Strategic Military Deception, Donald Daniel and Katherine Herbig note the existence of what they term “A-type” and “M-type” deception. A-type, or “ambiguity increasing,” deception is designed to create general confusion and to distract an adversary by making “noise.”
M-type, or “misleading variety,” deception is more ambitious in that it is designed to mislead an enemy into believing a specific deception plan. Here you engage in an array of deception operations which should supplement and complement one another, all designed to cause your opponent to believe an “alternative” to what you are actually doing. This “alternative” is, of course, not true. This type of deception is more complicated and more ambitious than simple “ambiguity.” It requires more preparation, more resources, and usually more time.
Access the attached document to a discussion about “The Trust,” a very successful deception perpetrated by the Soviet secret police to neutralize opponents of the revolutionary government under Lenin in the late 1920’s (See Trust-Rocca attached to this assignment). For those who are inspired by this imaginative and creative long-lasting operation please read at your leisure the longer document also attached: The Trust.PDF). After reading about “The Trust,” answer the questions below in 100-150 words each:
1. Was “The Trust” an “A” or “M” type deception? Explain. 20 points
2. What was “the real” they were hiding? Explain using the elements cited above. 20 points
3. What was “the false” they were showing? Explain using the elements cited above. 20 points
4. Did they “Invent” anything? Explain. 20 points
5. Where decoys used? (don’t restrict your thought process to fake military equipment, think “dangle” or people used as decoys. Explain. 20 points
Feel free to utilize other sources as well using Google Scholar!